About C2S2


The Conservation Centers for Species Survival (C2S2) cooperatively applies collective resources for the survival of threatened species with species needs- large areas, minimal group sizes, minimal public disturbance, and research.


C2S2 provides leadership in studying and creating self-sustaining, secure populations ex situ (in captivity) and in situ (the wild) of some of the world’s most endangered species.
C2S2 is taking immediate action to create large-scale, reproductively and genetically healthy, sustainable populations of endangered species in secure havens. Not only are these collaborative efforts saving species, we are creating a resource for returning species to nature, thereby restoring ecosystems and the promise of a healthy planet.


In 2005, five of the world’s foremost endangered species breeding and management centers in the U.S. (Fossil Rim Wildlife Center, San Diego Zoo Global, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute/National Zoological Park, White Oak Conservation, and the Wilds) came together to form C2S2. The organization was born out of an urgent need for greater collaboration and science-driven programs that could save species at a larger scale. Individually, these Centers have helped save some of the world’s rarest species, from the black-footed ferret to the giant panda to the Florida panther, among many others. The formation of C2S2 was also driven by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS) that has long-appreciated, and benefited from, the contributions of breeding centers for saving species at risk, or already extinct, in nature.

To interrupt the onslaught of species loss, the Centers recognized the need to think and act bigger – growing population sizes from tens to several hundreds to the needed thousands. This goal not only saves species, but also avoids the insidious effects of inbreeding while maintaining evolutionary potential and ensuring species safety and integrity. C2S2 partners realized the need for a paradigm shift – saving species and preventing extinctions by pooling expertise, specialized facilities, and an extensive international network, all while identifying new, improved approaches for conservation.
In 2014, C2S2 moved its central office from SCBI to Fossil Rim Wildlife Center (Glen Rose, TX). The following year C2S2 received 501(c)(3) status and hired its first Executive Director.

Board and Advisors

C2S2 board is composed of experts in conservation biology, reproduction, reintroduction science, animal care and management, and natural resource management.

Board of Directors

Mike Tackas (Chair-Elect/ Secretary), African Lion Safari– Hamilton, ON,  Canada
James Gregory (Treasurer), Austin Savanna– Austin, TX
Kelley Snodgrass, Fossil Rim Wildlife Center– Glen Rose, TX
Lauren Zarama, InKemia Green Chemicals– Houston, TX
Roger Sweeney, North Carolina Zoo– Asheboro, NC
Dan Cassidy, Omaha’s Henry Doorly Zoo– Omaha, NE
David Wildt, Ph.D. (Chairman/ President), Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute– Front Royal, VA
Jan Ramer, The Wilds– Cumberland, OH

Board Observers

Charlie Gray, African Lion Safari– Hamilton, ON, Canada
Gareth Morgan, African Lion Safari– Hamilton, ON, Canada
Justin Gregory, Austin Savanna– Austin, TX
Holly Haefele, DVM, Fossil Rim Wildlife Center– Glen Rose, TX
JB Minter, Ph.D., North Carolina Zoo– Asheboro, NC
Patricia Simmons, North Carolina Zoo– Asheboro, NC
Budhan Pukazhenthi, B.V.SC., Ph.D., Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute-Front Royal, VA
Steve Shurter, White Oak Conservation– Yulee, FL
Dan Beetem, The Wilds– Cumberland, OH

Advisory Board

Amy Chabot, African Lion Safari– Hamilton, ON, Canada
Lewis Greene, Columbus Zoo and Aquarium– Powell, OH
Gina Ferrie, Disney’s Animal Kingdom, Lake Buena Vista, FL
Regina Mossotti, Endangered Wolf Center– Eureka, MO
Susie Ellis, International Rhino Foundation– Strasburg, VA
Peter Clark, Montaro Zoo– Montaro South, SA, Australia
Joe deGraauw, Nashville Zoo– Nashville, TX
Craig Allenby, National Zoological Gardens– Pretoria, South Africa
Danny Morris, Omaha’s Henry Doorly Zoo– Omaha, NE
Evan Blumer, Oso Mono Ltd– Gahanna, OH
Jack Grisham, Saint Louis Zoo– Saint Louis, OH
Adrienne Crosier, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute– Front Royal, VA
Sara Hallager, Smithsonian National Zoo– Washington, DC
Nick Boyle, Taronga Western Plains Zoo– New South Wales, AU
Nicole Cavender, The Morton Arboretum– Lisle, IL
John Lukas, Wildlife Conservation Global/ Okapi Conservation Project– Jacksonville, FL
Larry Killmar, ZooTampa at Lowry Park– Tampa, FL

Conservation Centers & Affiliate Members

The C2S2 Conservation Centers and Affiliates are world leaders that have recovered some of the rarest species on the planet, from the giant to the black-footed ferret to scimitar-horned oryx. The C2S2 collaboration represents 100,000 acres of large, naturalist areas and decades of experience in wildlife management, recovery efforts, and reintroduction programs. C2S2 is always looking for a new conservation centers to join us. Learn about our incredible members and find out how to join.

You are donating to : Conservation Centers for Species Survival

How much would you like to donate?
$25 $50 $100
Would you like to make regular donations? I would like to make donation(s)
How many times would you like this to recur? (including this payment) *
Name *
Last Name *
Email *
Additional Note